Web Standards risk assessment
The Web Accessibility Standard and Web Usability Standard require that New Zealand Government organisations be prepared to assess and report on their conformance with those Standards. This includes submitting a risk assessment and management plan regarding any areas of non-conformance. While mandated organisations will be provided in advance with an approved assessment methodology and report format, what follows can be taken as general guidance for all New Zealand Government organisations on how to approach the matter of risk in the context of the Web Standards, in particular, the Web Accessibility Standard.
This guidance directly supports the aims of:
- the ICT Strategy and Action Plan 2017 — embedding trust and security as well as managing risk and quality;
- the Better Public Services Results 9 and 10.
Web Standards conformance and risk
Most New Zealand Government organisation websites must comply with the New Zealand Government Web Accessibility and Web Usability Standards. These Standards identify a number of requirements regarding web content, legal and policy issues, and notably web accessibility. If your organisation is mandated to implement the Standards, it is important to know how your sites do or do not conform, as the kind and degree of non-conformance may be placing your organisation at risk.
For example, if your site does not meet certain technical or accessibility requirements, some people with disabilities or those who use different devices might not be able to access your site. The inability of an individual or group of individuals to use your site because it is inaccessible could lead to negative consequences, including reduced uptake of online services and formal human rights complaints.
Similarly, if your site does not provide clear copyright and privacy statements, there may be no easy recourse when some of the site’s content is inappropriately repurposed, or when a citizen raises concerns about the circumstances in which her personal information has been used.
Publicly available websites that do not meet the Standards are obviously subject to risk in the public sphere. An internal website, however, can still present risks, for example, in terms of employee support and accommodation. This is particularly the case where the Web Accessibility Standard is concerned, as the Human Rights Act (1993), the legislation underpinning the accessibility requirements, applies equally within the New Zealand Government workplace as it does between the Government and the public. Additionally, the State Sector Act (1988) arguably requires the Public Service to ensure that its systems, including intranets and computer applications, are accessible to employees with disabilities. For these reasons, the Web Accessibility Standard applies also to internally facing web pages.
Non-mandated organisation websites
Even if your organisation is not mandated to comply with the Web Accessibility and Web Usability Standards, it remains important to know how each of your web products performs in terms of risk as your organisation remains subject to the Human Rights Act (1993) and the Bill of Rights Act (1990).
Assess and manage the risk
The identification, review, and management of risk form part of the regular strategic, operational, and planning activities surrounding any major project such as a website. Risk assessment and management help ensure that a project can achieve its objectives with the minimum of disruption and cost.
To understand the risks and consequences associated with your website’s level of accessibility or compliance with the Web Standards, a risk assessment and management plan should be created. This will enable your organisation to better address any risks your site presents, and mitigate any related outcomes.
Follow a process
Chances are that your organisation or branch already has a formal risk assessment and management process. While responsibility for each organisation’s implementation of the Web Accessibility and Web Usability Standards lies ultimately with its Chief Executive (CE), different teams at different levels within the organisation will be responsible for registering, reviewing, monitoring, and managing risk. This includes those risks generated by a site’s level of conformance to the Web Standards.
It is suggested that, where possible, you leverage your organisation’s standard risk management process and any available in-house expertise. Where this is not possible, you may wish to use a process like the following.
Failure to meet any aspect of the Web Accessibility or Web Usability Standard does not, in itself, present a risk. The risk lies in the consequences of that failure.
A “risk” is an event or condition (A) that leads to an outcome (B) that has an impact on the business (C). Without an impact on the business (C), there is no risk.
With respect to the Web Accessibility Standard, identify the failures and write corresponding risk statements. Obviously, in most cases it won’t make sense to write a risk statement for every single failure of the Standard that you find. For many websites, the individual failures will be many. Instead, it will make more sense to group and classify the failures based on their type and effect. You may also wish to include known issues that aren’t direct failures of the Web Accessibility Standard but may still cause a risk, such as the use of CAPTCHAs or very small font sizes.
The risk statement might look something like one of the following (fictitious) examples:
- “The instructional videos on our site are not captioned, which means a significant community (Deaf) is not able to use our online services, causing a negative impact on their uptake by the public and giving rise to the possibility of a human rights complaint.”
- “Licence application forms on our site fail WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.1.1 and are not usable by keyboard users. Some users therefore cannot apply for a licence online, which incurs extra cost and the inconvenience of providing face-to-face service, and exposes the organisation to risk of complaint to the Human Rights Commission (HRC) on the grounds of discrimination.”
- “Our publishing procedures result in inaccessible PDF documents without accessible alternatives, which results in requests via our 0800 number, which in turn incurs additional costs for printing and posting out hard-copy documents.”
Assess the risks
Assess the nature and severity of each risk on a spectrum from minimal to severe. For example, the following table provides a way to assess the severity of potential risks in different impact areas stemming from a lack of conformance with the Web Accessibility Standard.
||Inaccessibility of the online service extends beyond disability community, and overall uptake of the service fails to meet target||
||Organisation requires additional funding from Government|
||Public dissatisfaction within disability community adversely affects overall usage of online services or information||
|3||Moderate||Public comment by disability community about organisation’s competence online||
||Public threat(s) of complaint to HRC, Ombudsman, or legal action against organisation||Cost of remediation or dealing with complaint requires additional funding outside baseline|
||Formal complaints laid with organisation||Cost of remediation or dealing with complaint requires adjustment within organisation baseline|
|1||Minimal||Some complaints from dissatisfied users||
||Internal legal advice may be required to respond||Cost of remediation can be covered as part of the business’s normal operations at the expense of other activities|
Next, assuming that a particular risk’s cause has not been addressed or mitigated, what is the likelihood of the business impact of that risk manifesting? In the area of accessibility, business impacts may include:
- the cost and resource of a response to a complaint or action against the organisation, or
- the impact on the extent of uptake of an online service, or
- the often hidden cost of potential online users resorting to face-to-face or call centre service if they are unable to use an online, self-service option.
Assess what impacts there may be for your organisation’s services, and then assess the likelihood of that impact becoming real.
For example, in the context of risks associated with a failure to meet the Web Accessibility Standard, the following questions could be asked to assess that risk’s likelihood:
- How widespread is the failure? Does the failure occur in isolated instances, or is it endemic across a site?
- Does the failure prevent or hinder access to high-stakes information or services?
- What is the impact on users? Does the failure merely hinder or does it completely prevent access to information or services for some users?
- What type of disability groups are most affected by the failure? Are multiple disability groups affected?
- Is the failure one that’s already been described in the Office for Disability Issues’ list of common website accessibility barriers and solutions?
Rate the unmitigated risks by plotting them in a matrix like the one below that relates the severity of risk impact to the likelihood of the risk occurring. Using the matrix, you can assign each risk a rating from 1 to 25. A higher risk rating represents a greater risk and a higher priority for mitigation. Each risk rating has an associated colour to depict its general risk level: red for extreme, orange for high, yellow for moderate, and green for low).
|Almost never||Possible but unlikely||Possible||Highly probable||Almost certain|
|Severe impact||15 (orange)||19 (orange)||22 (red)||24 (red)||25 (red)|
|Significant impact||10 (yellow)||14 (orange)||18 (orange)||21 (orange)||23 (red)|
|Moderate impact||6 (yellow)||9 (yellow)||13 (yellow)||17 (orange)||20 (orange)|
|Minor impact||3 (green)||5 (yellow)||8 (yellow)||12 (yellow)||16 (orange)|
|Minimal impact||1 (green)||2 (green)||4 (yellow)||7 (yellow)||11 (yellow)|
Respond to the risks
Consider the effect of remediation or repair on each risk. What measures or controls could be applied to reduce or eliminate the level of risk, and what costs would be involved? Risk reduction can result from a reduction of either or both the risk’s severity or likelihood. Removing the risk’s original cause usually eliminates the risk entirely.
Put together a list of risks and the ways to address them. This can be used to evaluate and prepare a plan to reduce the number of risks or their impact.
Next, re-assess the severity, likelihood, and rating of each risk were it to be treated with the proposed controls and measures. Any risk that remains after treatment is ‘residual risk’. Residual risk should be accepted and signed off by an appropriate level of management.
Report the risks
Organisations should establish an escalation path to ensure appropriate levels of management are aware of the risks that the organisation or project carries, and be in a position to decide or agree on appropriate action. It may look something like the following:
|22-25 (red)||Deputy Chief Executive or Business Owner|
|14-21 (orange)||Programme Director|
|4-13 (yellow)||Project Manager|
|1-3 (green)||Project Team|
To keep track of the risks you are managing, plot each risk in a register. For each risk, describe it, its area of impact, its consequences, and any controls that could mitigate that risk. Also note the severity, likelihood, and risk rating of the risk in both its untreated and treated forms.
Below is an example of a basic risk register. Three sample issues have been entered into the template. Please note that, while certainly possible, these are fictitious issues only. In the context of a real organisation and website, the same risks might present themselves with different potential consequences, receive different assessments, and suggest different responses.
|Risk ID||Risk description||Area of impact||Impact description||Severity||Likelihood||Risk rating||Controls||Residual severity||Residual likelihood||Residual risk rating|
|R01||Forms in public-facing web application are not keyboard accessible: People with certain disabilities or those with older mobile devices will not be able to submit the forms, which is the main purpose of the application.||
|R02||A few layout tables have non-empty “summary” attributes: Some screen reader users will suffer undue noise when navigating/reading table content.||Reputation||Limited user complaints||Minor||Possible but unlikely||5 (yellow)||
||Minor||Possible but unlikely||5 (yellow)|
|R03||Three two-minute videos for children on how to stay safe around dogs are not captioned and have no transcript. Deaf children or parents are deprived of important information related to their safety.||
||A complaint of discrimination to the HRC is possible if requests to caption go unresolved.||Significant||Possible||18 (orange)||Provide text transcript||Minor||Possible||8 (yellow)|
Something is better than nothing
Where the approach described above is not possible, or where a formal risk assessment is not a requirement, you should at least take some time to review the state of your site’s adherence to the Web Standards, and based on this:
- identify risks related to shortcomings in your site’s accessibility and standards-compliance;
- assess and rate the likelihood and possible consequences of those risks; and,
- plan responses for each potential risk scenario, including what can be done immediately to reduce the likelihood and later impact of those risks.
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